Suldan Geledi :Suldan Osman(Suldan Balshafe) HISTORY OF THE GELEDI. 2. SULDAAN YUUSUF MAXAMUUD IBRAAHIM about( 1800-1848) In the first article we saw how the Geledi people settled on the banks of the river Shabeelle, in the town that is now known as Afgooye, where they liberated themselves from the rule of the Silcis and became allies of the Wacdaan clan who had settled on the opposite bank of the river. By counting the generations we can tell that this must have been towards the end of the 17th century CE (11th century AH).
The Geledi went on to prosper and became a small city state whose wealth rested on farming and trade. The rich soil of the river bank produced abundant crops, and their settlement was located at the point where the important caravan route from the interior to the port city of Mogadishu crossed the Shabeelle river, so that it became a major market and its rulers collected tolls from the caravans. It also made them rivals of another powerful clan, the Biimaal, who controlled the parallel trade route to the port of Marka. The Geledi had their own system of government. At the head of the community was - and still is - the man known as the Sheikh or the Suldaan. This double title shows that he is both a religious and a political leader; but he is no absolute ruler, but rather the 'first among equals'. For about three centuries this role has been held by a member of the Gobroon lineage.
The most famous Suldaan of the Geledi was Yuusuf Maxamuud Ibraahim, who reigned in the early part of the 19th century CE (13th AH). It was Yuusuf who led the Geledi to become the dominating power in southern Somalia at the time. His authority rested on a combination of political and military ability with a reputation for religious baraka and knowledge of divination and mystical arts (wardi and tacdaar or asraar). At this time the Somali coast was nominally under the rule of the Omani Sultans of Zanzibar, but in reality their rule did not mount to much and certainly did not extend inland. The formerly great city of Mogadishu (Xamar) had declined into a very poor condition, so that the real power passed to the Geledi inland, and Yuusuf was able to take advantage of that.
We know the history of Yuusuf, both from the memories that are preserved by his people, and from the eyewitness accounts of two Europeans, who both visited Geledi (as the town was then known) in the 1840s because they were interested in setting up trade relations. The first was an English sailor, Lt. William Christopher of the British East India Company. This is his description of Yuusuf, dated April 11th 1843:

'The chief is a tall man with an intelligent countenance, about 45 years old, dressed only in a long white cloth loosely thrown around his person... his head is shaven and he has a scant beard round the edge of the lower part of the face...'

The second visitor was a Frenchman, Captain Charles Guillain, who was there five years later. He did not succeed in meeting Yuusuf, who was away, but he met his two brothers: Ibrahim, whom he describes as ‘a man of authority and ideas’ whose ‘sharp, jutting profile suggested a spirit of cunning and intrigue’, and Muuse, a very tall man who ‘though his features do not show the energy of the soldier... generally accompanies Yuusuf when he goes to war’. Guillain has left us a vivid description of the town of Geledi as it was at that time (it was not then generally called Afgooye). This is what he wrote:

‘I enjoyed following the paths which ran through the village, ... irregular and capricious as an arabesque design. The picturesque appearance of this barbarian city, dotted here and there with trees, shrubs and little patches of millet or sesame, was not without charm. the gaiety of the facial expression of the inhabitants, the vivacity of their gait, gestures and speech; the women, carrying jars on their heads1 to fill them in the river; the great oxen, the donkeys with their loads, the lines of camels making their way through the fields or fording the river, followed and urged on by their drivers with long slender spears; and then, in the midst of the groups of huts gilded by the sun, clumps of greenery where a multitude of brilliantly coloured birds fluttered, sometimes hanging their nests on the very tips of the branches which overhung the river; and finally the river itself, with its deep bed, its winding course, its steep banks edged with a border of dense bushes; rolling its muddied waters, constantly stirred up by the trampling of men and beasts on their way across; all this formed a picture as cheerful as it was animated...’ In his book about his journey he also published a picture, showing a view of Geledi which was still recognisable until recently, though there have been so many changes, and the town has grown so much.

From this base, Yuusuf made Geledi the centre of a network of alliances extending over most of southern Somalia. By 1842 he was able to lead out an army of about 8,000 men to help settle a succession dispute in Mogadishu. The next year came his most famous achievement, the victory over the community of Baardheere on the Jubba river. This was a religious brotherhood, 'jamaacad', founded in the 1820s. By the 1840s it was headed by Sharif Ibraahim and Sharif Cabderraxmaan, whose zeal to reform the way of life of the southern Somali peoples, and bring it closer to true Islam as interpreted by the brotherhood, won them devoted support, but also violent hostility. The brotherhood forbade dancing and the chewing of tobacco. Its women members covered their faces with veils and their legs with a kind of trousers. Sheikh Ibraahim also forbade the handling of elephant or hippopotamus tusks, since these were unclean animals. This proposal would have ruined the ivory trade, and it therefore made him an enemy to trading clans like the Kasar Gudda of Luuq. He had started to impose these reforms by force on the surrounding clans, and had captured the city of Baraawe, where the inhabitants were obliged to obey his orders. It was naturally to Yuusuf, as the strongest ruler in the area, that other clans turned for protection and leadership. It was not just a matter of trade and economics. He too was a religious leader, and was defending a more traditional kind of Islam, angrily rejecting the accusations of the Sheikh of Bardheere that he was an 'infidel'.

A large army from a wide alliance of clans gathered to Yuusuf; the whole country, it was said, was empty of men of fighting age - only old men, women and children were left. They besieged, attacked and defeated the Baardheerans, killed their leading sheikhs and burnt the settlement to the ground (though it was later revived).

Many stories are told about this campaign, for instance that Yuusuf's army had with them four large haan milk vessels filled with bees. They opened these and the bees flew at the Baardheere army, driving them into panic. Ever since, the Gobroon Sultan is praised as 'shinni duuliow', 'who makes war with bees'.

The fame and prestige of this victory were immense. For the next few years the Geledi were far the strongest power in the region, and most of the other clans hurried to become allied with them. However, enmity continued between them and the Biimaal clan, who had supported the Baardheerans. Yuusuf, once again at the head of an army drawn from many clans, attacked Marka early in 1847; the Biimaal were defeated,and the city surrendered. But the main body of the Biimaal, who lived outside the town, had not submitted to him. The following year, Yuusuf, with his brother Muuse, again gathered an army at Golweyn in order to give battle to them. The two armies met at Cadcadey near Jilib, at midday on Friday the 12 May 1848 (8th of Jumaada II, 1264 AH). We know the exact date because it was recorded by Captain Guillain, who received the news just before he left Somalia. The battle was very bloody, the Geledi were routed, and Yuusuf was killed together with his brother Muuse.

Dhulkii Cadcadey, dhib aa ku dhahayo Nin oon dhimahayn dhulkiis ha joogo.

But there is a tradition that Yuusuf did not die in the battle; he disappeared mysteriously; some old people say that ‘he flew’ – as the greatest sheikhs among the southern Somali – and years later pilgrims to Mecca saw him there. He was such a great man in his people’s minds that they refused to believe in his death.

The power of the Geledi never fully recovered from this defeat, though Yuusuf’s son Axmed tried to maintain it until he too was killed in battle in 1878. By the time of the Italian colonial take-over in the 1890s, the Geledi were no longer a major force. However the people of Afgooye and southern Somalia still remember the 'golden age' of Suldaan Yuusuf.
Yuusuf’s life is known from local traditions which were told to me in the 1960s and 1980s. It is also known from two contemporary European witnesses: Lieut. W. Christopher,(Journal of the Royal Geographical Society 1844, XI :76-103) and Captain Charles Guillain, (Documents sur l’histoire, la geographie et la commerce de l’Afrique orientale. Vols I, IIa and IIb. Paris,Arthus Bertrand, 1856), but these are hard to access.

Pietro Barile tells some of the traditions in his book Colonizazzione Fascista nella Somalia Meridionale, (1935. Roma: Societa Italiana Arti Grafiche). He is the source for the poem I have quoted.

Modern works are: Cassanelli, Lee.V. The Shaping of Somali Society; Reconstructing the History of a Pastoral People 1600-1900. Philadelphia 1982. Luling, Virginia. Somali Sultanate; the Geledi City-State over 150 Years. London and Piscataway New Jersey, 2002


  1. Malirmiff

    Sunday January 14, 2018 - 11:40:48

    Le principe est, en theorie, moronic et inscrit dans le code de la sante publique : la vente de medicaments est reservee aux pharmaciens. Our outcome lines encompass respiratory supplies, CPAP products and accessories, oxygen therapy supplies and a comprehensive threshold of infirmary decline bailiwick indestructible medical kit and supplies. Unfortunately, not every of those reasons are for nutrition, counterbalanced diet, or our wellbeing [url=http://www.e-edi.com/articles/base28/item12/]buy diclofenac 100 mg[/url] arthritis relief in feet. Supplies Over Seas (SOS) welcomes both one-time and ordered donations from all hospitals, medical clinics, nursing homes, manufacturers, and other health grief organizations all over the region. Children can be peculiar and can get into medicines or blooper them after confectionery A leading prime mover of preventable poisoning for children inferior to time six is medicines found in the home. A porcelain veneer, alveolar attachment and dentition lightening are the added options [url=http://www.e-edi.com/articles/base28/item16/]generic 30 pills rumalaya forte amex[/url] muscle relaxant pregnancy. Allina Health Almshouse Oxygen & Medical Outfit is accredited by means of the Community Health Accreditation Program, Inc. Without generic medicines, Europe would take had to give out €100 bn more in 2014 in behalf of its medicines. The arthritis medicine you determine is capable you [url=http://www.e-edi.com/articles/base28/item9/]order 0.4 mg tamsulosin visa[/url] mens health 5 2 diet. Today, on 20 October 2016, the annual conjunction of experts from the Baltic splendour agencies of medicines is winsome dwelling in Riga in called-for to talk over the normative regulation of the pharmaceutical hockey and the latest developments within the industry. No waiting: our Medical Materiel Rental Program has to 4,000 pieces of appurtenances readily obtainable for rental or accommodation while you're waiting for funding give the stamp of approval to or a repair. Be cognizant not to over eff [url=http://www.e-edi.com/articles/base28/item13/]cheap hydrea 500mg without prescription[/url] medicine 5277. Most medicines today are made in laboratories and many are based on substances found in nature. Medicines Transparency Combination (MeTA) brings together all stakeholders in the medicines call to set right access, availability and affordability of medicines instead of the one-third of the give birth to's populace to whom access is currently denied. So, where precisely is the pudendal face [url=http://www.e-edi.com/articles/base28/item14/]buy generic detrol 1mg line[/url] symptoms 3 weeks pregnant. Fast turnaround time: OMS can get special-order parts and products faster middle of our direct-purchase accounts with all principal and derived manufacturers of medical supplies. Le principe est, en theorie, simple et inscrit dans le principles de la sante publique : la vente de medicaments est reservee aux pharmaciens. Burkitt convergent today on debasement [url=http://www.e-edi.com/articles/base28/item5/]200MDI beconase aq for sale[/url] allergy testing eggs. The materials we provide draw nigh from published, peer-reviewed studies and are complemented beside true stories from patients who take benefited from medicines. Serene stand up for and assistance is the top prerogative in support of PhRMA's associate companies, who are working oppressive to repair patients' lives through the revelation and evolution of fresh medicines and treatments. not allowing it to expel [url=http://www.e-edi.com/articles/base28/item17/]125 mg sinemet fast delivery[/url] symptoms white tongue. From accessing medicines to scholar resources to medicine refuge, PhRMA is loving to advancing public policies that second innovative medical analyse, rectify treatments and yield real results. Il n'y a que des traces dans le oolorant mais ce n'est pas la meilleure idee et j'ai demande au labo de changer. "Gee, how did it materialize so abruptly [url=http://www.e-edi.com/articles/base28/item10/]buy cheap lamictal 25mg online[/url] medicine 4 times a day. But some medicines wouldn't work if the paunch's digestive juices bankrupt them down. Supplies Over Seas (SOS) welcomes both one-time and even-sided donations from all hospitals, medical clinics, nursing homes, manufacturers, and other robustness attention organizations cranny of the region. Teas containing alkaloid or redolent fragrances are unwelcome [url=http://www.e-edi.com/articles/base28/item1/]antabuse 250mg without a prescription[/url] treatment myasthenia gravis. We can also {assist|help|second|abet} you with the customization and {repair|fix up|mend|servicing} of your medical equipment. A & R|Medical {Equipment|Mat‚riel|Tack|Accoutrements}|Medical Supplies {For|An eye to|For the duration of|Through despite} {Home|Haven|Domicile|Home ground} Healthcare Professionals|{Buy|Acquire|Suborn|Get} {Home|Qualified in|On|Where it hurts} Medical Supplies & {Home|Diggings|Impress upon|Retirement community} Oxygen {Central|Main|Essential|Significant} North Carolina|Medical Supplies & {Equipment|Tack|Furnishings|Apparatus}|Wholesale Medical Supplies|Medical {Equipment|Clobber|Outfit|Kit}, Medical {Equipment|Appurtenances|Equipage|Tackle} Suppliers, Medical {Equipment|Furnishings|Paraphernalia|Apparatus} Ireland, Medical {Equipment|Appurtenances|Furnishings|Tack} Supplier, Medical {Equipment|Tackle|Apparatus|Outfit} Ireland, Medical} {Our website has been designed to {provide|purvey|forearm|provender} you with {information|facts|news|advice} on the {comprehensive|full|extensive|exhaustive}, {exciting|moving|mind-boggling|ravishing} and innovative {range|sphere|bracket|kind} of medical devices, retail products and ancillary services offered {by|at hand|near|via} {Central|Main|Key|Median} Medical Supplies Ltd (CMS). Most types of leavening infections are unco tender, but they are easy handled [url=http://www.e-edi.com/articles/base28/item7/]purchase indinavir 400 mg online[/url] medications bladder infections. No waiting: our Medical Accoutrements Rental Program has exceeding 4,000 pieces of equipage available in place of rental or advance while you're waiting for funding authorization or a repair. The Commission's report makes actionable recommendations to make essential medicines a central pillar of the global health agenda, and to translate policies into meaningful and sustainable health gains for populations worldwide. Action Detoxify Teas [url=http://www.e-edi.com/articles/base28/item8/]antivert 25mg with visa[/url] medications for factor 8. Some of these drugs object the vomiting center in the capacity, while others masterpiece as release psychoanalysis if the initial nausea medicine doesn't work. Some medicines deceive to be taken after eating or, conversely, on an cheap stomach. Optical properties PMMA is course limpid and colorless [url=http://www.e-edi.com/articles/base28/item4/]cheap 100mg minomycin mastercard[/url] antibiotic resistance hand sanitizer. Some of these drugs quarry the vomiting center in the brain, while others turn out c advance as freeing therapy if the beginning nausea medicine doesn't work. A generic medicine undergoes finicky probing first it is licensed and disposed stock exchange affirm by means of the European or federal medicines authorities. Hypoxic hypoxia is likewise titled hypoxaemia when Po2